Human Body Organ Systems
The human body is made up of 11 organ systems that work with one another (interdependantly). These systems include the integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, urinary system, and reproductive systems. We will briefly discuss the major functions of each organ system below.
Integumentary system– (skin, hair, nails) Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Houses cutaneous receptors, sweat glands, oil glands, and synthesizes vitamin D.
Skeletal system– (bones, joints) Supports and protects the body’s organs. Provides a framework muscles use (movement). Bones also store minerals and create blood cells.
Muscular system– (skeletal muscles) Maintains posture and produces movement (locomotion). Produces heat.
Lymphatic system– (red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes) Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. Returns leaked fluid from blood vessels to the blood and disposes debris within the lymphatic stream.
Respiratory system– (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung) Removes carbon dioxide and continually supplies blood with oxygen. Gaseous exchanges occur in the respiratory system (lungs).
Digestive system– (oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus) Breaks down food to be absorbed and eliminates indigestible waste.
Nervous system– (brain, spinal cord, nerves) Control system of the body, responds to internal and external changes, activates muscles and glands.
Endocrine system– (pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis) Glands from the endocrine system secrete hormones that regulate many processes like growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
Cardiovascular system– (heart, blood vessels) The heart pumps blood and blood vessels transport it. Blood carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste and more throughout the body.
Urinary system– (kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra) Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates acid-base, electrolyte and WATER balance of blood.
MALE (prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens)
FEMALE (Mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube)
The main function of the reproductive system is to produce offspring. Sex hormone and sperm are produced by the male testes. Male ducts and glands help deliver the sperm. Ovaries produce female sex hormones and eggs. Other female reproductive structures serve as sites of fertilization and development. For instance, the mammary glands produce milk for the newborn.
Category: The Basics